Last week, the European Commission launched two investigations into Apple regarding iOS. The first focuses on the App Store and whether Apple is distorting competition for music streaming and distribution of ebooks and audiobooks, while the second is focused on whether Apple is impermissibly limiting competition with Apple Pay. Both of these investigations are part of a broader look at digital marketplaces ongoing in Europe, the United States, and most of the world.
To understand how we reached this point, we should backtrack a little. On March 13, 2019, Daniel Ek, the founder and CEO of Spotify, announced in a blog post that Spotify had filed a complaint with the European Commission, as Spotify believed that Apple was using its control over iOS to compete unfairly with Spotify in the music streaming market.
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